Who knows this will happen?

Posted by clinical chemistry blog notes03B , Thursday, August 12, 2010 7:27 AM

Hello! I am Trixie, I was a 17 year old. I’m kind, cheerful, and a sweet girl that everyone’s friend.  One of my passions is playing taekwondo. I started playing since when I was a kid, and I’ve been promoted to black belt when I was 11 years old. And I’ve been recognized as the best player during my  6th grade. I appeared to have all of the requisite talent to excel in high school and perhaps I earn an athletic scholarship in college.
It was Wednesday morning, and this is my first time to meet the varsity team. I’m so much excited about this day, but I’m a bit nervous. And as our coach asked me to introduce myself in the whole team, I confidently go infront and said a little background of myself, seems that everyone was so friendly to me except to Jasmine. I tried to approach her but I fail to do because Jasmine acts so IRRITABLE. I’ve noticed that Jasmine looks so DEPRESSED and SHORT TEMPERED, and during our sparring she appears so AGGRESSIVE and VIOLENT, that even our coach cannot control her.  And whenever the team tries to talk to her, asking her about his condition, she’s experiencing HALLUCINATIONS and SENSE OF PARANOIA.  I’m feel so concern and curious about Jasmine, one night after our varsity training, and all of the my co-players are gone, I found Jasmine in the corner of the room, smoking at first I thought that it was just a piece of a cigarette, but it was as CRACK.I was so shocked, I want to stop her from taking that thing because I know it is bad to her health.
I went nearly to her, and she began on high, it was then approximately 20 minutes of euphoria when Jasmine experienced it when smoke the crack. But after awhile, tears began to fall on Jasmine’s eye you can see that she was trapped on a problem. Jasmine confessed to me that she is a pregnant, and her boyfriend left her. She was so confused and she decided to ABORT her baby. I told Jasmine how important life is, and advice her to take the responsibility. The next day, Jasmine approached me and  told me that she will stop from playing because it will be harmful to her condition. Thanks to God that she has been enlighten. My curiosity does not end there as well as my concern, I’ve researched informations about cracks, in order to understand why does Jasmine acts such that way.
Let me share with you,
Here are some facts about it
CRACKS,  formally known as benzomethylecgonine, cocaine. It is an alkaloid extracted from specific plants. Its active ingredient is benzoylecgonine. It can be ingested, inhaled or administered intravenously. The most popular route for cocaine is intranasal. Most abusers tend to smoke the cracks.

Approximately 20-minutes of euphoria experienced when smoking cracks.
--I remember when I saw Jasmine smoking cracks, and she began on high for about 20 minutes.

Half life of cocaine in the circulation is only about 30 minutes to 2 hours.
Strong sense of euphoria, mental alertness, depression, hallucination, sense of paranoia, increased motor activities, violence, aggressiveness, are some of the effects of cocaine.
--Now, I realize why does Jasmine acts that way.
One of the more tragic cocaine use seen in PREGENANCY, this will increased incidence of spontaneous abortion and still birth. A greater chance of infants will acquire birth defects such as neurological damages.
--This is one of the major reason why Jasmine decide to take cocaine.


  • Assays are commercially available to detect the presence of benzoylecgonine by RIA, enzyme immunoassay, or gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry.

Principle: Immunochromatography
In which the drug or drug metabolites in the sample compete with a drug conjugate immobilized on     the porous membrane support for limited antibody sites. As the test sample flows up through the absorbent device, the labeled antibody – dye conjugate binds to the free drug in the specimen forming an antibody-antigen complex. This complex competes with immobilized antigen conjugate in the positive reaction zone and will not produce a pink – rose color.

  • Specimen Collection and Storage
Urine (1.0ml/ 1000 ul), it should be collected in a clean, dry container without preservative. If the sample will not be tested immediately refrigerate it(2-8°C) and stored up to 48 hours frozen (-20 C) or colder to assaying. But they must be equilibrated to room temperature before testing.(32-35°C)

  • SENSITIVITY LEVEL = 300ng/ml

POSITIVE = presence of pink-rose color line it the control lane and absence in the test lane.
NEGATIVE = presence of pink-rose color line it the control lane and presence in the test lane.

ü  For “In Vitro use Only”
ü  For professional use only.
ü  Do not use kit beyond expiration date indicated on the label.
ü  Urine specimens may be infectious. Proper handling and disposal of all use reaction devices should be done in a biohazard container.
ü  The direction must be followed exactly.
ü  Accurate timing is essential to provide optimal results.
ü  Gloves must be worn when performing the test.
ü  Clean up spills thoroughly using an appropriate intermediate to high level disinfectant.

I found all of these facts in books I’ve read, the books entitled  Clinical Chemistry by Donald F. Calbreath and Manual in Clinical Chemistry III by Mrs. Virginia B. Gaces, RMT , with regards to the Cocaine Card Test. Thank you to this sources , this enlighten me what are the effects and reasons why  Jasmine decided to take up this drug.  Just like Jasmine, there are many people who are suffering from drug addiction, it maybe of different reasons but, if they will not QUIT it would end MISERABLE



Posted by clinical chemistry blog notes03B , Wednesday, July 21, 2010 8:50 AM


"Are you in favor of drug testing before admission in school?"

Drugs are chemicals that change the person’s body work. You probably heard that drugs are bad for you. But some people are still taking and being addicted to it.

THC (delta9-tetrahydrocanabinol) and MET (Methamphetamine) commonly known as Marijuana and Shabu, are requested and the only drugs that are being tested in the Philippines. They are the most abused substances in the country. Illegal Drugs can damage the brain heart and other important organs.

There is a growing concern among parents about these illegal drugs, they may be wondering if their child is being exposed and involve with this. DRUG TEST BEFORE ADMISSION IN SCHOOL would be a great help in order for them to monitor their children. In order to prevent and fight from illegal intake of drugs will be successful, it has to start at home, many parents today are busy from their work, and they are not aware enough with their children. Many factors influence a person’s initial drug use. Personality characteristics, peer pressure and psychological stress can all attribute to the early stage of drug abuse. That’s why constant monitoring from the parents is important, Drug testing as one of the requirement for students  as well with the employees, such as school administrator before admission will facilitate and ensure that the campus is free from drug users.


Posted by clinical chemistry blog notes03B , 8:49 AM

As we mature are curiosity expands, vices such as SMOKING and ALCOHOL INTAKE, are the two most prevalent cases that individuals are involved. Factors such a peer pressure, media (commercial advertisements) and other environmental issues may greatly influence everyone.

CIGARETTE and ALCOHOL are a form of illegal drugs and these two most abused substances. Abused substances produce some form of intoxication that alters judgment, perception, attention, or physical control.

Many substances can bring on withdrawal-an effect caused by reduction in the amount of the substance used. Withdrawal can range from mild anxiety to seizures and hallucinations produce the same level of intoxication.


A statement that everyone knows, but still many people are being addicted and they have a hard time to quit on smoking. And most of people cite reasons for using tobacco including pleasure, it may relief depression and stress, curbing hunger and for weight control. (tsk.tsk)
Why people most of people are addicted to smoking??? .

It’s because of the primary addicting substance in the cigarette is NICOTINE. But cigarette smoke contains thousands of other chemicals that also damage health. Adverse effects include heart disease, lung cancer and emphysema, peptic ulcer disease, and stroke. Withdrawal symptoms of smoking include anxiety, hunger, sleep disturbances, and depression.


One bottle of beer becomes two bottles, then two becomes, five! REMEMBER: Too much is BAD! Alcohol actually depresses the brain. Alcohol lessens your inhibitions, slurs speech, and decreases muscle control and coordination, and may lead to alcoholism. Alcohol is the most common cause of liver failure. And this drug may also cause an enlargement of the heart and may also lead to cancer of esophagus and stomach.

It is normal to be CURIOUS in everything that surrounds us,

But better set BOUNDARIES in all aspects




Posted by clinical chemistry blog notes03B , Saturday, July 3, 2010 10:06 PM

Most people enjoys going out with their family and friends, drinking a beer or any alcholic beverages while chatting, or to celebrate a special day or to give comfort to a friend who is in need. But for other people, one drink becomes two drinks, which becomes five drinks, they are unable to stop drinking. It seems that it will be the last day of their lives. And this will be the start of their TOXIC LIFE.

For most people who drink alcoholic beverages regularly, would really affect their health. As this toxic substance has an adverse effects on their body.

The aliphatic alcohols, ketones ethers, aldehydes and acids,are some of the range of toxic substances that we may be expose of, under this we have the ethyl alcohol (ethanol), acetone, diethyl ether and formaldehyde

Ethyl alcohol is primarily found in alchoholic beverages, whenever you a person drinks a alcoholic beverage about 20 percent of this is being absorbed by the stomach and 80 percent of it is absorbed by the small intestines. After the absorption, the alcohol enters the bloodstream. The blood carries the alcohol throughout the body then it enters and then dissolves in the water inside each tissue of the body. The effect of ethyl alcohol will depend on the blood alcohol concentration, it is the amount of alcohol consumed, normally the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) can significantly rise after 20 minutes of drinking.

It is important to have a self-control when drinking an alcohol beverages, too much is not healthy as a matter of fact this could lead to STUPOR, COMA, DEATH . Stupor is a condition wherein you can't barely move at all, you cannot respond to stimuli, may vomit. Stupor would be experience when there is atleast 0.25 to 0.4% of BAC. While coma would occur when there is a presence of 0.35 to 0.50% of BAC, the person seems to be unconscious and his heart rate becomes slower and breathing becomes shallow. And if more than 0.50% of BAC is present this may lead to death.

"All substances are poisons - the difference is in the dose "

This aporhism is attributed by  Paracelsus. It shows that the possible or potential for harm is prevalent and all chemicals could be tocix but the degree of harm  that a chemical impose on a human or any other living being depends on the dose or the degree of exposure as well as other factors.

In other words the risk from a TOXIC hazard
depends on the EXPOSURE.

Photo Credits:


Is there a place for this challenge test?

Posted by clinical chemistry blog notes03B , Tuesday, June 8, 2010 3:58 PM

“6months? 9months? In a few months from now I will be far from you but it doesn’t really mean that I am leaving you. ”

Yes. We’ve became lovers, taking a risk out of regret is my decision. I know it’s not that easy to be in a long distance relationship, and as most people say that … this relationship is COMPLICATED and a FAILURE, because such factors of feeling alone, he may find another and desire for companionship can cause this to end (blah-blahblah-blah enough for that) For us, it may not really seem so rough, it never came to our mind that it will just be a failure nor it may just disappoints us. But we take it as a challenge, a test in our relationship to know and prove if we really love each other. 

Does this love coming from the bottom of our hypothalamus can endure the distance and time?

Do you know that the hormones that secreted by our hypothalamus have also a specific test for us to know if there is any deficiencies and dysfunctions on this hormones.  

First, we have the Thyrotrophin Releasing Hormone Test (TRH Testing,) this test is used to help in identifying secondary hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism due to pituitary problems) and tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism due to hypothalamic disorder). There is no specific patient preparation for this test. Before initiating TRH a baseline TSH test is done. Then the patient is given an injection of TRH, which stimulates the pituitary to release TSH. A second blood sample is drawn 20 to 30 minutes later, and the TSH level is being retested.


§         If the patient has a normal function of hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) this may respond by increasing the levels of TSH following TRH injection.

§         If the patient with compromised HPA function may exhibit a delayed, blunted, or absent response to TRH administration.

Normal reference range for TSH : 0.2-6 IU/mL

Next, we have the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Test (GnRH Testing), this test is used to determine if there is hypothalamic- pituitary disease in those children with low basal gonadotropins who are occurring delayed puberty in both sexes. The patient should not be on any Steroid, ACTH, Gonadotropin, or Estrogen medications, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to blood collection. Then the patient is given an injection of GnRH which stimulates the pituitary to release the LH and FSH. A second blood sample is drawn 20 to 30 minutes later, and the TSH level is being retested.

Normal reference values in pre-pubertal children are:

§         LH < 2.0 iu/L

§         FSH < 2.0 iu/L


§         A flat response in gonadotropins (< 5 iu/L) occurs in prepubertal children and with pituitary and/or hypothalamic disease.

§         An exaggerated response is seen in primary & secondary gonadal failure.

We also have the Growth Hormone Test (GH Testing), this test is primarily requested for the patients who are suspected having a growth hormone abnormalities/deficiencies.

            According to “Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations by Michael Bishop et. al, page 404 of Chapter 17 (paragraph 3),” The test is performed after an overnight fast, and the patient is given a 100-gram oral glucose load. Growth hormone is measured at time zero and at 60 and 120 minutes after glucose ingestion. Following oral glucose loading, growth hormone levels are undetectable in normal individual; however, in patients with acromegaly, growth hormone level fails to suppress and may even paradoxically rise.

For further understanding click this link:


Lastly, the Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone Test, this test is performed to evaluate how efficient your pituitary gland is working in regulating the release of cortisol and ACTH. Before the test, the patient should not to eat or drink anything from mid-night on the day of the test.

First, they will take a blood sample to the patient to check your baseline hormone level of two hormones called ACTH and cortisol. Then give an injection of CRF which in normal people will stimulate your body to produce a rise in ACTH and cortisol. Blood samples will be taken at 15 minute intervals for up to 2 hours after the CRF injection to check the hormone levels so as to measure how well your body can respond to the stimulation.

For further understanding click this link:



Life is a like a road…

Sometimes there are humps you need to surpass.

It may take time and you may come across with different processes, 

but it’s up to us on how we look things for us to overcome this trial.


Photo Credits:

  • Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations by Michael Bishop et. al 



Posted by clinical chemistry blog notes03B , Tuesday, May 25, 2010 7:53 AM

He said “I LOVE YOU! I LOVE YOU I LOVE YOU!!!” Oh my God! Is this really it? Help me!!! I really can’t explain why I’m feeling this way! I was so nervous! My heart really beats so fast (lub-dub lub-dub lub-dub lub-dub). As I was standing in front of him, there are too many questions came into my mind. Asking myself... why do I care for him that much?! Why can’t I stop thinking about him every now and then?! Why is that I am very much happy when we’re together??(blush) Why do I get easily jealous out of nowhere??(sigh) WHY??? Is this really it? Finally, I’M IN LOVE!

Looking back,  I suddenly realized  that its because of my HYPOTHALAMUS!

It is an almond-shaped part of the brain, which lies below the thalamus and above the brainstem, and contains several small nuclei. Its main role focuses in the control the body temperature, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and body weight. It is the one who is responsible for the muscle contraction.

It plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. The hypothalamus also plays a major role in managing the secretion of hormones.

It was two years ago, 18th day of September believed it or not I felt that way. Love really amazes me. It can make you smile and laugh all day, knowing that the one you love really cares for you and loves you too. But love also makes us cry, at times of challenges misunderstandings and arguments came across you, however this makes us strong. Through ups and downs you will discover new things from your partner, and as well as to yourself.

Feeling so in love? Its because of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as Luteinizing -hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and luliberin, it which produces by the hypothalamus. During puberty this hormone is being increased, it is responsible for the sexual development the attraction in opposite sex, feeling of admiration, in love, rage which is related to hypothalamic function. It has a 10 amino acids and it releases lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Feeling into stress when having arguments? Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), originally named corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and also known as corticoliberin, is the one who is responsible for this emotional responses, such as feeling of stress or hungry also involve the hypothalamus. It has 41 amino acids and it releases adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH).

Misunderstandings and arguments are only challenges that will makes stronger and more mature. Relating this with Growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth-hormone-releasing factor (GRF, GHRF) or somatocrinin. It has a 44 amino acids and releases growth hormone (GH) it is the one who is responsible for developing our maturity.

Lastly, the Thyrotopin-releasing hormone also known as Thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF ), having a 3 amino acids. It releases thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL). Hypothalmic hormones have several functions, but they focuses more on the releasing side of action.

And now I know what’s behind these strong feelings,
it’s because of my HYPOTHALAMUS!

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thyrotropin-releasing_hormone.svg3. 3.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PBB_Protein_CRH_image.jpg3

6. Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations by Michael Bishop, Edward P Fody, et. al

Endocrinology.Toxicology.Drug Test

Posted by clinical chemistry blog notes03B , Wednesday, May 12, 2010 6:44 AM

As we all know, we have different systems in our body, one of which is the Endocrine System. It consist of various glands, that deals in the secretion of the hormones directly from the blood.


  • It is a branch of medicine that greatly concerns with the physiologic role of the hormones and endocrine glands involving the human system. It also deals with with the related disorder or diseases regarding the endocrine system.

  • The study of toxic substances that may interfer in the circulation and its specific effect particularly on the living system. Toxicology counteracts with the different fiels od studies, such as Pharmacology, Pathology, Histology, Biochemistry and more other.

  • Its main purpose is to identify and diagnose what specific substance causes the toxicity, and this may help to detect an exact medication for its treatment.

Drug Test

  • It is the determination for th presence or absence of a specified drugs or their metabolites in the human body.

  • Biological specimens for drug testing may include urine, blood, oral fluid or saliva.

  • According to Mrs. Amalia Malonzo, RMT one of the drug test analyst of Bio Assay Diagnostic Center, there are only two drugs that were tested here in the Philippines namely THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) anf MET (Methamphetamine), or commonly known as Marijuana and Shabu. She also cited that most of the their patients request to avail this technical analysis for pre-employment purposes, renewal of license others are for personal reasons.